VI Astana Economic Forum Recommendations for G20 leaders

The world economy after the crisis continues to face a number of problems:

  • global uncertainty on the prospects of economic growth;
  • the complexity and opacity of the financial structure of the economy;
  • crisis of confidence that has a negative impact on investments;
  • low business activity, accompanied by rising unemployment.

The global economic recovery remains extremely fragile: the weak, unbalanced growth has significant risks on economic indicators.

To resolve the situation it is necessary to coordinate the response of the G20 governments in order to ensure the sustainability of the recovery of the global economy.

In this context the main event of the coming year will be the summit of leaders of the G20 countries, which will be held September 5-6, 2013 in St. Petersburg.

At the initiative of the Russian Federation, the discussion on the oncoming G20 summit supposedly will be focused on three main priorities, each of which are of systemic significance for post-crisis growth and development:

  • Investments - to restore the economy and create new jobs;
  • Trust and transparency - to ensure the sustainability of growth;
  • Effective regulation - to improve the quality of growth.

From our side, we fully support the initiative of the Russian Federation.

In order to ensure the legitimacy, transparency and efficiency of decision making Russia initiated multilateral consultations with non-members of the G20 ("outreach"), including governments, intergovernmental organizations, the business community, non-governmental organizations, trade associations, youth, expert and academic community.

The complex effect of the active interaction between these parties, first proposed by the Russian presidency, will enhance the effectiveness of the G20 for the world community.

We, the participants of the Astana Economic Forum, welcome the initiative of the Russian Federation to host the oncoming G20 summit. Astana forum in substantial sense becomes a proponent of a wide “Eurasian vision” on the problems of global development.

We have discussed the issues and challenges of global development and stimulating new economic growth as well as other key issues on the G20 summit’s agenda.

Representatives of the Russian Federation have participated in the outreach activities of the VI Astana Economic Forum (AEF) and the World Anti-Crisis Conference (WAC), May 22-24, 2013. Suggestions and recommendations developed at the AEF and WAC will make a significant contribution to the discussion on key problems threatening the global economy.

Among these problems – the world financial and economic crisis, which has escalated into world social crisis, and covered both developed and developing countries. Formation of G20 group has significantly expanded the range of the dialogue on the reform of the global economy. However, after 4 years since the first anti-crisis summit of G20, this format seems to be insufficient.

Over 10000 participants attended Astana Economic Forum, including representatives of international institutions (UN, IMF, WB, ADB, EBRD, etc.), government officials with huge managerial experience, leading scientists, Nobel Laureates, representatives of political, expert and the business communities.

The new format of the dialogue, approved within the framework of the Astana forum has received the broad support and was called the “G-GLOBAL”. Since its inception in January 2012, more than 3 million people from 160 countries have been involved in the discussions on the info-communicational web-site G-GLOBAL.

The general problems of innovative development, nuclear and environmental safety, ethnic and religious tolerance, and other aspects of geopolitics are discussed. In other words, G-GLOBAL serves as a potential unifying idea of a multipolar world.

We are offering the following recommendations to the G20 leaders taking into account thesuggestions of participants of Astana Economic Forum and the free internet-community, these recommendations were developed in accordance with the framework of the 2013 G20 summit.

I EFFECTIVE REGULATION - FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH

In accordance with the priorities of the Russian presidency in the G20, the main directions of effective regulation are linked to the reformation of financial regulation, strengthening of the multilateral trade and ensuring sustainable development of the energy markets.

In order to ensure the stability of the post-crisis recovery of the global economy "Group of Twenty" should contribute to the creation of a unified system of global financial regulation. Such system should ensure an optimal balance of restrictive and stimulating measures in order to ensure stable development.

One of the consequences of the global crisis is the deep simultaneous decline in foreign trade operations around the world. Creation of an effective multilateral trading system that will decrease barriers and contribute to the successful development of regional economic integration is a prerequisite for economic growth, investment and employment.

The energy component of the current crisis associated with the imbalances on the markets and uncertain prospects of alternative energy use is a significant factor in blocking global recovery trends. The efforts of the "Group of Twenty" should be aimed at creating incentives to improve energy efficiency and "green" development, as well as reasonable regulation to ensure the development of the energy infrastructure.

Reforming financial regulation and supervision

Recommendation 1: Stabilize each national economy minimizing the negative spill-over effects of the national macroeconomic policies on the rest of the world.

Today the policies of quantitative easing of the major global economies, which are the main tool to combat slowing economic growth, are seen as one of the aspects that strengthen protectionist trade measures and, therefore, are an obstacle to the resumption of economic activity in the world.

In this context, coordination of monetary policies in the "Group of Twenty" and constructive dialogue to prevent "currency wars" for these countries should remain one of the main directions of international cooperation.

Recommendation 2: Both developed and developing countries need to find solutions to problems of global imbalances.

Large developing countries with a permanent current account surpluses are moving towards expansionary macro policies in order to sustain economic growth. In this case, the governments of these countries need to assess the impact of investment decisions in order to reduce the potential risks of internal imbalances.

Developed countries with a constant current account deficit should decrease demand in imported goods and services, without decreasing investments in research in physical and human capital.

Recommendation 3: The national and regional regulation and supervision of financial institutions should be based on similar principles and concepts in order to facilitate coordination and avoid regulatory arbitrage.

International associations of regulators such as the Financial Stability Forum, the BIS, the International Organization of Securities market regulators and the International Association of Insurance Supervisors must expand collegiality in decision-making, and harmonize the concepts and theories of the new standards in the area of financial regulation. The desire of every country to become a full participant in the global discussion on new approaches in financial regulation and to have access to the best practices of effective financial supervision should be satisfied automatically, and the stereotypes of an exclusive club should stay in the past. This requires the adoption of a package of documents for capital, liquidity, risk management, effective supervision in 2013, to set the realization terms of the new requirements, to ensure the synchronization and coordination with accounting standards, IFRS and US GAAP.

Recommendation 4: Developed countries should evaluate and minimize the risks of the discontinuation of programs of quantitative easing.

To date, the quantitative easing programs have played their role, giving impetus to economic growth in some developed countries. In this regard, the G20 is advised to assess the long-term effects of the central banks exiting these unprecedented, anti-crisis programs.

Despite the emergence of the improvements after nonconventional measures adopted towards the monetary policy of the US, Eurozone and Japan, the economic growth is still volatile, unemployment level is considerably high, and the stock market is unstable. The quantitative easing policy, that implies the devaluation of the national currency towards the foreign currencies results in the competitive devaluation or the “currency wars”

Recommendation 5: Governments should regulate and supervise the "shadow" banking sector.

Despite the attempts to regulate the "shadow"[1] banking sector it continues to expand its scope.

Meanwhile, it is rather the "shadow" banking sector, than the traditional banks, that was largely the cause of the last financial crisis. In this context, the question remains on whether should "Basel 3" standarts be extended and applied for this part of the financial sector.

Recommendation 6: The International Standards of ranking and rating agencies activities.

In order to reduce systemic distortions in risk evaluation of the assets listed on the market in favor of a country, it is necessary to develop international rating standards and standards for rating agencies operations, as well as to provide uniform international regulation of rating agencies.

Strengthening international trade

Recommendation 7. Completing the negotiations of Doha Round of World Trade Organization

It is necessary to complete the Doha Round of WTO in order to restore confidence in the international trading system with multilateral rules and agreements through an open and responsible trade policy. We appeal to bring the question raised 12 years ago, to its logical conclusion.

Recommendation 8: Establishment of the specialized commissions on legal settlement of the transit policies is needed not only at the regional level, but also on a global scale, and could be the basis for mutual discussion at the upcoming St. Petersburg summit of G20.

This measure is particularly important for developing countries, whose exports are generally less competitive and imports are more expensive. This issue is of utmost importance for landlocked countries.

Recommendation 9: Ensuring fair and equal competition on international agricultural markets.

One of the world's most closed agricultural markets - the European Union does not give access even to the members of the WTO and members of the Cairns Group, led by the United States. Legal solution to this and similar problems should give a necessary impulse to resolve this incipient deadlock.

Recommendation 10: Further integration of countries into various regional unions is an important condition for post-crisis recovery.

Formation of various regional economic unions has become a growing trend as it allows to take advantage of the integration processes and collaborative sound economic policy.

In these circumstances, the G20 countries are encouraged to advice countries on the institutional design of flexible and open regional trade associations. This measure will provide access to non-WTO countries to exploit the benefits of free trade.

Recommendation 11. Support of the G20 initiatives to counter protectionism in international trade.

The increase of the restrictive measures in international trade will undermine the benefits of trade openness. Moreover, the relationship between the growth rate of world trade and economic growth remains below pre-crisis levels. In this regard, we welcome the initiative of the G20 countries to impose a moratorium on new protectionist measures in international trade until the end of 2014 and propose to extend it until the end of 2015.

Recommendation 12: Reduction of non-tariff barriers to trade.

Awareness of the opportunities and threats associated with international trade, are key factors in the expansion of exports of small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries.

We call upon the governments of the "Group of 20" to promote the development of institutions for trade support in their countries and to develop programs that will provide access to the databases and sectoral market research of these organizations to allow developing countries to make informed decisions on the development of exports.

Stable development of the energy market

Recommendation 13: The transition to a "green" economy.

The transition to a "green" economy has to be adapted to the specific conditions of each country and has to involve all groups of the population, through the development of knowledge, skills to include the concept of "green economy" in practice.

For the implementation of this transition on the national government level, we recommend an adjustment of existing sectoral policies, institutional reforms, development of new standards, regulatory framework and tax reforms.

Diversification of production in industrial, municipal and agricultural sectors will increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution and resource consumption.

To achieve the transition to a "green" economy, we need effective coordination between countries, international and regional organizations, NGOs, businesses and institutions, cooperation with the international community to support "green" initiatives.

We call upon the countries of the "Group of 20" to provide help to developing countries in accessing environmental technologies on such terms that would encourage their further distribution without creating economic barriers for developing countries.

Recommendation 14. Register of "green" products

Create an updated register of foreground products under the aegis of the G-20 to removing all kinds of trade barriers. Agreements between the WTO, UNCTAD, ICC, the EU, NAFTA, APEC, ASEAN and other areas of trade on the development of "green" trade.

Recommendation 15. Investment in infrastructure for sustainable development

It is essential to mobilize both public and private resources to ensure sustainable development and green growth. We support increased government investment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development of infrastructure (including public transport, renewable energy, energy efficient buildings) and natural capital to repair, maintain and increase its capabilities.

Development, job creation, and the changes necessary to address climate change and sustainable development, require a lot of investment. Institutional investors such as pension funds and sovereign wealth funds now have more than a trillion U.S. dollars. Investing even a very small portion of this amount can have a huge positive impact on the financing of sustainable development.

New and innovative financial instruments that would facilitate the use of the resources of institutional investors need to be developed in order to finance sustainable development, using both public and private resources for the application of capital required to address these global challenges.

To encourage investment and to increase the capacities of alternative energy, countries must enhance cooperation on the development of appropriate financial instruments. In this regard, G20 countries’ support of the idea for "Green Climate Fund" for developing countries is advisable.

Recommendation 16: Establishment of the G-Global energy club as an institute to prepare outreach events on the issues of clean energy in preparation to the Expo 2017.

The interaction within the framework of this club would allow participating states to work together to develop ways to address such pressing issues as:

  • optimization of energy policy and coordination of long-term energy strategies;
  • development of common mechanisms for the implementation of energy policies;
  • development and implementation of collective energy security policies;
  • arranging agreed positions and actions on the global energy market (the formation of a common energy diplomacy);
  • development of the transit infrastructure, transport and communications;
  • innovation and coordination of investment policies of member countries.

Recommendation 17: Developing a new model of agreements on corporate resource management of ecosystems with equity participation of capital in the growth of local economies.

G20 Group should help promote a new type of enterprise resource management of ecosystems through public-private partnerships and concessions.

Recommendation 18: The Rio +20 outcome document "The future we want".

Virtually all countries have contributed to the development of the outcome document of the Rio +20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development. This suggests that in the next 10 years, global energy and environmental problems will be solved using the approaches stated in this document.

"Sustainable Energy for All" initiative was launched by the UN Secretary General with the main goal of eradicating poverty by 2030 by providing access to the basic minimum level of energy services to every person, doubling global energy efficiency and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy balance.

We recommend to the G-20 countries to use the "Global Programme of Action", developed by the High-level Committee on the implementation of the UN "Sustainable Energy for All", taking into account national and regional specificities to formulate national and regional programs for sustainable energy.

We also call for the provision of financial resources on a cost-effective basis to developing countries to achieve the objectives of the Initiative.

Recommendation 19: Establishment of a new system of knowledge "Energy of the Future"

"Global Energy and Ecology Strategy" initiated by Kazakhstan on the UN Conference on Sustainable Development Rio +20 has been supported and a whole paragraph of the outcome document on "Energy" was introduced.

Thus, there is already an international document on energy development until 2100, supported by the international community. Scientists of Kazakhstan, Russia, USA, Germany and Japan are finalizing the concept of the "Strategy of Sustainable Energy for Kazakhstan till 2050," as a practical application of the ideas of "Global Energy Strategy" for a specific country in accordance with the global trends.

The international community has recognized the initiative to conduct the international exhibition EXPO-2017 "Energy of the Future" in Astana. The exhibition will serve as a basis for a new research and education cluster in Eurasia.

Therefore, it is logical to offer to the international community to build their facilities at Expo-2017 as future workshops of the new system of knowledge. Together businesses, universities and government will form the global center for innovation and knowledge in the field of energy of the future.

Recommendation 20: Spreading a new model of agreements on corporate resource management of ecosystems with equity participation of capital in the growth of local economies.

G20 Group should help promote a new type of enterprise resource management of ecosystems through public-private partnerships and concessions. It is a question of multilateral agreements for a period of not less than 30-50 years between businesses, governments, local authorities, basin councils, international organizations to attract investments in the integrated development of administrative areas related to the water pools and in the development of new green industries.

II INVESTMENT - FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT

One of the most obvious consequences of the global economic and financial crisis has been a significant decline in the various types of investments, especially noticeable in developed countries.

To resolve the problems of increasing the volume and improving the efficiency of investment funding it is necessary to analyze public policy in this area, the role of public-private partnerships and non-traditional sources of long term financing and to evaluate opportunities to generate resources for investment on the debt and equity markets in the current conditions, as well as issues related to foreign direct investment (FDI).

Problems and challenges of global employment continue to grow. Despite the fact that five years have passed since the beginning of the global crisis, the restoration of economic development will not happen soon. As shown by the ILO report on global trends of employment, unemployment rate in the world is growing. If in 2012 the world was 197 million people out of work, in the next five years, their number is expected to grow to 210 million. The number of unemployed is higher in comparison with 2007 by 28 million. Of all the 75 million unemployed are young people, many of them never had a chance to work.

High income inequality, the decline in consumer demand and lack of confidence in the context of high uncertainty undermine future prospects for economic recovery and growth.

At the same time, in the context of globalization of the global economy and the current level of civilization, the importance of human capital as a factor of social and economic development at the national, regional and trans-national level has been steadily increasing. Discussion on the development of human capital will boost the competitiveness of the countries and that is the key to recover from the current crisis.

Financing investments

Recommendation 1: We propose increasing investment in global agricultural production and social protection, including programs to help poor people gain access to food, and to review the existing policies of some countries that encourage the use of alternative crops. In doing so, developing countries need to develop agricultural production. Developed countries should help them in this so that they will be able to meet their needs for agricultural products.

Recommendation 2:Every national economy should encourage the investment necessary to implement available technologies at the highest possible speed.

Every nation of the world has the responsibility to invest in its human resources and in its infrastructure as to unleash the entrepreneurial skills of its people and to create the investment opportunities that will help to implement the most efficient available technologies in the production of the goods and services demanded by their population.

Opportunities for the use of the positive effects of globalization on technological development can be fully exercised with a model of open innovation that will reduce costs, resources and time for the development and commercialization of new products. The benefits of an open innovation model allow us to recommend the governments of developing countries to adopt this model, as they have virtually no large companies that are able to independently carry out the whole innovation cycle. With the assistance of the "Group of 20" the model of open innovation can be applied in a number of ways: foreign technology transfer, entrance of non-oil TNCs, "raw materials in exchange for technology" schemes and R & D outsourcing.

Recommendation 3: Developing a special report on FDI.

Practice shows that foreign investment in general dominate the natural resource sector and real estate, which, given their well-known unstable conditions often are subject to fluctuations.

This strategy doesn’t generally promote stability in the labor markets, doesn’t stimulate the development of human resources (because they are not involved in the sphere of material production, where it is more relevant), restricts economic growth opportunities.

That is why this issue needs a detailed study. We hope that G20 prepares a special report on this subject on one of the future working group events and consider its recommendations at the G20 summit.

Recommendation 4: Promote the implementation of the state policy in support of innovative cross-sectoral partnerships for the development of entrepreneurship.

Governments should create favorable conditions for small and medium-sized enterprises investments in innovation and promote the development of cross-sectoral partnerships in business.

Providing employment

Recommendation 5: Promoting investments for job creation.

It is essential to stimulate private sector development for the creation of productive jobs. Government policies should be coherent and have predictable plans. Financial reforms are needed to restore the banking sector in terms of support for investments and lending. Political leaders need to focus on the growing problem of youth unemployment.

Recommendation 6: Building a better investment climate for job creation.

Stimulating private sector development is essential for the creation of productive jobs. Government policies should be coherent and have predictable plans. It is necessary to carry out financial reforms to restore the banking sector in terms of support for investments and lending. Political leaders need to focus on the growing problem of youth unemployment.

Recommendation 7: Stimulating global demand.

High unemployment, reduced real wages in many developed countries caused a decline in consumer demand, which could stimulate economic growth. It also highlights the disparities in incomes and wages.

Growing consumer potential of the middle class in developing countries is the positive factor of development, which can be an important engine of world economic growth, although not as fast and immediate.

Recommendation87: Promoting youth entrepreneurship and self-employment.

Young people often have the potential to become successful entrepreneurs, but do not have business education and capital to build their own businesses. Governments and social partners should create an environment that will enable young people to realize their business ideas and minimize errors.

Recommendation 8: The flexibility of the labor market

The problem of labor market flexibility is important both for countries where the labor market is just starting to develop, and for the industrially developed countries as it allows better use of work time and production capacities. Flexible labor market provides an opportunity to adapt to changing conditions and allows transition from one form of employment to another for workers.

It is necessary and essential to maintain social dialogue between the Government and independent trade unions, employers' associations to find reliable solutions to the crisis. Social dialogue is a good tool for the division of responsibilities in times of crisis when the positions of the parties are polarized.

Recommendation 9: Implementing active employment policy

High unemployment can lead to social and political unrest. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out deep structural reforms and to introduce a variety of strategies (promoting entrepreneurship and innovation through the creation of special educational programs and business incubators at universities) for the employment of the most vulnerable segments of the population, especially among young people. Rise in youth unemployment can lead to so-called risk of "lost generation." Thus, according to the UN ILO there are almost 75 million unemployed young people in the world.

The set of measures aimed at reducing unemployment, should be focused on stimulating the creation of new jobs, retraining the unemployed, improving the competitiveness of the labor force. This requires an effective system to support the development of human capital, both on global and national levels.

Recommendation 10: The problems of the labor market associated with the demographic situation.

The demographic problems associated with the aging of the population in many countries, including the countries of G20, may have a negative impact on the economic and social systems of these countries. If the emerging trends on the labor markets of these countries are not countered, there will be an increasing number of non-workers that account for a single worker.

To resolve this systemic problem G20 countries need to: change the retirement age to stabilize the dependency ratio, promote diverse approaches in the pension system, adapt immigration policies to the labor market, to stimulate the birth rate and the struggle with mortality, etc.

Recommendation 11: Review of indicators of the sovereign rating.

Such indicators in the sovereign rating, which reflect the quality of social progress are getting more important. Indicators that reflect the social status of the population should be considered alongside well-known macro-economic indicators of national economic development (gross domestic product, economic growth, etc.). This approach is becoming increasingly popular in the scientific and expert circles and among politicians.

Employment of vulnerable groups

Recommendation 12: Develop a global fund for social insurance and protection of migrant workers

The task of developing a comprehensive system for social risk management associated with migrant workers is very important for the international community and should be brought forward at the international G20 summits. This system should include institutions such as the Global Fund for Social Security and protection of migrant workers and international social security and protection of migrant workers. These funds should be formed on a professional basis (for the purpose of objective actuarial calculations, payments of insurance premiums and compensations) as well as on a regional basis.

Recommendation 13: To promoting the employment of people of pre-retirement and retirement age, women and the disabled

To provide employment for vulnerable groups of the population it is necessary to create an enabling environment and develop new policy instruments to empower and engage people of pre-retirement and retirement age, women and disabled people in private enterprise. Free business training, and favorable lending conditions can be used as support tools.

International Development Assistance

Recommendation 14: The development of free trade of means of production and technology.

G20 countries are responsible for identifying obstacles to the free flow of technology, knowledge, capital goods and financial capital across national boundaries and negotiating the removal of such barriers. According to the latest negotiations in the WTO it is necessary to strengthen measures to protect intellectual property, including the work being done in virtual space.

We call upon the countries of the "Group of 20" to improve their work on the issues of cyber threats and violations of intellectual property rights and to counteract unfair competition (the use of cheap pirated software and content).

Recommendation 15: Developing and implementing international standards of living of the population.

We call upon the G20 to establish a working group on the formation of international standards of living of the population in order to ensure access to basic goods.

Inclusive and balanced growth to improve the welfare of all groups of the population should be the basis of social policy.

It is necessary to ensure that all segments of the population exploit the benefits of economic development, to contribute to reducing the gap in income and wealth. This, in turn, should not only bring social benefits, but also lead to higher economic growth. Low demand due to lack of income consequently leads to low consumption of lower and middle class, while excessive concentration of income in the hands of the higher classes is one of the reasons of the prolonged global recession.

Thus, national governments and the international community as a whole should use the fiscal policy and labor market policies to reduce income inequality. Social programs aimed at ensuring access to education and improving its quality, the reforms in the health system, correlation between wage increases and labor productivity growth should be an integral part of national policies aimed at sustainable and balanced economic growth.

Recommendation 16: Covering healthcare issues in the agenda of the summits of G20.

Population's access to quality health care remains one of the greatest challenges for the developing and the developed countries, undermining the global achievements in economic growth.

We urge the G20 countries to intensify cooperation to combat communicable and non-communicable diseases. And also to improve the policy on organ donation, blood products safety and the fight against bioterrorism.

Recommendation 17. Defining the UN’s goals of the Millennium for the period after 2015.

We urge the G20 countries to formulate post-goals of the Millenium focused on resolving the global debt problems. Given the importance of resolving the debt crisis in the Euro zone, the mechanisms of regulation must be legitimate and focused on the priorities of human development.

Food supply security

Recommendation 18: Develop and approve a detailed plan of action to address the food problem in the world at the G20 Summit,.

The goal is to increase food production by 70% in the coming years in order to feed people all over the world. This is a key question for any country, especially for the G20 countries that account for 80% of food production in the world.

We should improve the monitoring and exchange of information on the state of the global food market, projected volumes of supply and demand for food in order to prevent its deficit, inform market agents and, if necessary, apply intervention measures on the market of agricultural products and food.

Ensure concerted action by FAO and WHO to effectively monitor the quality of food.

Develop a harmonized approach to forecasting balances of the global and regional food markets.

Considering the fact that the production of ethanol and biodiesel, on one hand contributes to solving global energy problems, but on the other hand impede solving the food supply problem, G20 should implement concerted actions in terms of production of biofuels.

We need to increase transparency in agricultural markets. Implement agreements that prevent speculation on the grain and other major agricultural products markets. Reduce the impact of volatility in prices of agricultural products on the most vulnerable countries.

Recommendation 19. Prevention of tension in the food markets through restricting speculation on the prices of food products

To avoid spikes in food prices it is necessary to deploy a network of exchange stocks and of food, located in different regions of the world, and independent of each other. Under the aegis of the International Food and Agriculture Organization it is necessary to establish a system for monitoring food supplies in the states, which will also monitor threats of drop in production of agricultural products due to natural disasters, spread of infections and pests.

Recommendation 20. Enhancing control over the market of genetically modified products

In order to prevent mass consumption of food products, hazardous to health, in addition to existing methods of certification, sanitary, veterinary and phytosanitary control, in connection with the emergence of fundamentally new food products, produced from genetically modified organisms. It is necessary to develop and, with the assistance of the World Bank, to implement a program of action, providing adoption of international standards of nano-, genetic engineering and cell technologies. Within the framework it is also necessary to develop and adopt technical regulations of food production with the use of nanotechnology, genetically modified organisms and raw materials derived from them.

Another recommendation is to create a Fund, which will finance independent research on GMP safety or unsafety. The results of these studies should be made available to the global community, and form the basis of the UN resolutions on the possibility of the use of GMPs to fight hunger in the world.

Financial literacy

Recommendation 21. Develop a system of free financial education for people of retirement age, youth and entrepreneurs

Lack of financial and economic literacy of a large part of the population in emerging markets limits the ability of people to make effective decisions about their financial future. That results in the adoption of low-quality business plans, and thus reduces their access to credit resources. Wide promotion of the foundations of business and business culture, including through the establishment of specialized courses and workshops in schools and counseling centers for young people and aspiring entrepreneurs will enhance their ability to open, maintain and develop businesses.

Recommendation 22. Increased use of the Internet for the promotion of financial literacy.

We urge the G20 countries to provide financial support for distribution of information and materials on financial literacy for children and adults through the internet. This measure will reduce the risk of loss for the population that uses financial products and services, including the risk of being involved in fraud schemes.

III TRUST AND TRANSPARENCY - FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH

Last global financial and economic crisis has revealed the gaps and weaknesses of the international financial and monetary system. At the same time many of the fundamental flaws of this system, which led to the emergence of the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 have not been resolved. These systemic weaknesses require the implementation of a large-scale and fundamental reform of the global monetary system.

The financial and monetary system reform should lay the groundwork to strengthen the global economy and to build a more balanced and effective international financial architecture to prevent future crises. To achieve this goal it is necessary to continue work to further improve the efficiency and legitimacy of the IMF's governance, which will be logically conclude with the reformation of the IMF quota and governance that initiated back in 2010 as well as the revision of the IMF quota principles to adequately reflect the relative importance of the current shareholders of the fund.

It is also necessary to provide equal opportunity for countries in the legislation of the IMF and the World Bank management.

In this regard we propose the following recommendations:

Reforming the international monetary and financial system

Recommendation 1: Further reform of the global monetary system

The last global financial and economic crisis has shown that the existing is in need of a radical reform. Some steps in this direction have already been made, but they are not sufficient.

The main scenario of a change in the global reserve system is expected evolution of the new global monetary and financial system in which several currencies will act as reserves on the global level.

It is recommended to continue the gradual, evolutionary progress in this direction.

Recommendation 2: Raising responsibility of the issuers of global reserve currencies

The country issuing global reserve currency has certain advantages: the ability to cover the deficit of the balance of payments with the national currency, to promote the competitiveness of national corporations on the global market, etc.

Therefore, the list of countries that claim to be the world's reserve currency recently expanded. But the nomination of country’s currency on the role of global reserve should impose specific duties. Such as currency stability through compliance with certain restrictions on the size of public debt and balance of payments deficit, the removal of foreign exchange and trade restrictions, compliance with the requirements on transparency of the emission mechanisms.

Recommendation 3: Continue the reform of international financial institutions.

Over the past few years there has been clear progress in reforming the international financial institutions.

Changes that occur in the global monetary and financial system, will give these institutions more authority and legitimacy in the exercise of the functions of supranational global regulator.

Therefore, we on our part fully support what has been done and recommend the G20 to continue work in this direction.

Recommendation 4: Coordination of regional financial mechanisms.

Regional financial mechanisms or «safety nets», at the moment are important tools for the global financial architecture. There are about a dozen of the RFM’s in the world. They have enormous resources, for example, the capital of the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) is about 900 billion U.S. dollars.

The main objective of the RFM’s is to support the balance of payments and budget of the participating countries, and reforming their economies to enhance resilience to global cataclysms. Although better coordination between the RSM’s and the IMF is recommended. This will allow more efficient use of resources, reduce risk and achieve the desired result

Recommendation 5: Develop a permanent body for global currency regulation.

The sharp fluctuations in exchange rates, including the so-called "hard" currencies, have become a common occurrence in recent years. The amplitude of such fluctuations is growing while the influx of speculative funds in the international currency market and in derivative financial instruments on the basis of exchange rates is growing.

G-20 are able to have an impact on the reduction of random flows of capital and distortions in exchange rates, and to develop a set of tools to enhance global security.

There is a need for a permanent body for global foreign exchange management on the basis of the Board of G20-countries’ central banks to smoothen volatility in the foreign exchange market and provide opportunities to quickly and coherently respond to the exchange rate fluctuations.

Recommendation 6: External debt control

We believe that global methods of rigid borrowing control that would prevent quick and unjustified increases in the size of the external sovereign and corporate debt should be found.

International capital movements in all offshore jurisdictions should also be taken under special control.

Recommendation 7: The tax on international financial transactions.

Tax on international financial transactions could generate sufficient funds to cover the financial costs of maintaining financial stability, and to provide sufficient time to restore solvency through fiscal consolidation and structural reforms.

An additional step is to direct tax revenue in the form of aid for the development of an international institution that will offer these funds on special terms to developing countries or sectors undergoing the process of transformation.

Addressing corruption

Recommendation 8: Developing a system of international regulation of national anti-corruption programs.

This system will help strengthen the response of the international community in exposing corruption in the activities of international companies in other countries. International coordination will also facilitate the spread of good practices and the development of anti-corruption education.

Recommendation 9: Promoting best practice standards of responsible business practices as a means of preventing corruption.

During the post-crisis global economic recovery anti-corruption initiatives contribute to the business community’s involvement of motivated employees and investors focused on the highest ethical business practices. This process will help restore confidence in the global business environment and have a positive effect on economic growth.

Recommendation 10. We support the implementation of the G20 Anti-Corruption Action Plan for 2013-2014.

The Working Group on Anti-Corruption G20 can demonstrate transparent and inclusive approach by setting an example. In particular, the publication of the schedules and agenda of the Working Group meetings in advance, as well as the publication of the draft recommendations with the possibility of interactive discussion will attract experts of global civil society in the process.

Recommendation 11. Accession of the G20 countries to the initiative for transparency of international aid.

Increasing the transparency of international donor programs is an important global anti-corruption initiative, comparable to ensuring the transparency of mining industries, budget transparency and public procurement.

Given the fact that international aid is about 10% of the budgets of the poorest countries, we urge the G20 countries to join the practice to improving the transparency of international aid flows through publication of clear and understandable information available for public and audit firms.


[1] Hedge funds, private equity investment, investment banking, money market funds, primary dealers of government bond market and etc.