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     Zhakatayev T. A., the Doctor of Engineering, ENU of  L. N. Gumilev

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    In science it is known long ago that contacts of metal and the semiconductor generate thermo electro driving force (e.d.f.) [1-12], figure 1. 


                                      1 – metal, 2 – semiconductor. 

               Figure 1 – Scheme of generation thermo e.d.f.  

                            in a system: metal –semiconductor [1-12].

In [1] is noted the interesting fact that during World War II of the Great Patriotic War between the USSR and fascist Germany (1941-1945), the Soviet guerrillas as a current source used the thermo electric generator which was manufactured on the basis of a system metal – the semiconductor. Thermal heating (hot section) was carried out the kerosene lamp and thus provided radio set power supply. At the same time it is noted that in the whole efficiency of such system still low, at the level of 15% - 20%. What corresponds about 0.1 of V on ∆t ≈100 oC.    

    We assume that such low value of efficiency of the semiconductor thermoelectric battery is connected generally with what during creation of value semiconductors n or p of type impurity remains at the level of   in 1 cm3 [1-12]. It  means that on each impurity atom, for example Indy (In), is necessary 10000 atoms of Basic Element, silicon or Germany, figure 2. In percentage terms it will be  . Increase in level of concentration of impurity elements for example to values at least    is technically difficult task. As popular and available methods of receiving impurity, binary semiconductor mixes (a method of diffusion mixing, a method of fusing of two originally firm layers, point pulse heatings and fusings and others) do not allow to rise above the specified   in 1 cm3 [13-17]. And also are limited to very small volume (three-dimensional) space. It is possible to tell that all of them work in narrow flat - an interface.   

   The scheme of formation of a hole (p) when adding trivalent In in the Si silicon volume (at which valency is equal to 4) is shown in figure 2, [1-12].


                       Figure 2 - Scheme of formation of "hole" [1-12]. 

As a result of theoretical consideration in this work it is shown that it is possible to increase significantly efficiency of the thermoelectric generator, working in a system: metal - impurity the semiconductor. The necessary positive effect is reached as a result of accounting of a volume thermo gradient effect on emergence polarized e.d.f.       

            Theoretical solution.

     In the beginning we will consider the theoretical parties of new approach to the solution of an issue of increase in efficiency of such thermo elements in terms of physics. Let elements 2 and 4 in figure 3 will be big, massive, volume and let they will be spatially divided. This situation is represented in figure 3. In terms of physics this situation will be model as motion of the molecules in two big volume vessels connected among themselves by the reported channel, a vessel. The situation is shown in figure 4.   

    Let's describe this process in terms of molecules kinetic theory of gases. Thus it turns out, that the first plates (2) have higher level of temperature than the second plates (4). All electrons in a plate 2 will have some total kinetic energy as a result of the thermal movement 


                                                        ,                      (1)



- is quantity of free electrons in a conductivity zone. Metal plates keep in a condition of heating, δT=const all the time. It occurs as a result .

    All electrons in a plate 4 will have some total kinetic energy as a result of the thermal movement

                                                            ,                 (2)




 - total number of electrons in a plate 4 in a vessel 3. Which belong to a zone of conductivity, to a free zone. 



                       T1 >T2 ,  2-metal plates, 4 – semiconductors,

                                     1 and 3 – vessels.

                Figure 3 – spatially divided volume, massive 

                                 thermoelements: metal – the semiconductor




            Figure 4 - is modeling of diffusive movement free electrons

                       on the basis of the scheme of communicating vessels.

Some part of these electrons can not be in a zone of conductivity of a plate 4. They can get deep into, down a ladder and to take vacant positions of the free holes which are in a valency zone. You watch figures 5-8. It occurs for the reason that  .

    Follows from physics of process that any system aspires to an equilibrium state. In this case follows from the principle of thermodynamic balance of a system that

                                                    .                           (3)

As a result, the plate 2 will accept an additional positive charge

                                     ,                                          (4)

where  Q – electron charge ,  - quantity of the electrons which in addition passed into volume 3 (2) of volume 2 (1) in figures 3, 4. It is that quantity of electrons which counterbalances a difference of average kinetic energy of electrons in volumes 1 and 2. Respectively the plate 4 will be loaded negatively.  

    Approximately the following results turn out

                                    Q  from  1 cm3 of  coper,           (5) 

  1.    V.                  

From physics it is known that the charge 1St = 1.054822*10-5 Q is defined by size as F force = 1 N at distance of 1 m. It for comparison. 

   Formulas (4), (5) show high value for a charge of the arisen polarization. Which resulted from temperature gradient. Let's say that for some unaccounted reasons of loss will make 60%. And then δq=3500 Q from 1 cm3 of copper. And even it will represent a high rate. All calculations are carried out at the difference of temperatures  oC. It shows a huge potential stock of energy which can be received from volume thermo gradient effect.


             Figure 5 - Schemes of levels of excitation and direction of

                             transition electrons in the semiconductor [1-12]

As these data belong to 1 cm3 of initial materials (copper and the semiconductor from a silicon plate), from this it follows, that large volume of plates will be a basis of emergence of big (significant) polarization of charges on two different plates which are in two different vessels. Let's explain told. When volume V – that is rather big, then there will be rather big also  and  values. As a result of it and essential values of the general total average meanings of kinetic energies  и  will be sufficient. From this rather high level of value of the polarized charge δq follows, you watch formulas (1) – (3).

    In figures 5-7 levels of excitation of electrons in the semiconductor, arrangements of the acceptor and donor levels in a forbidden band from

different impurity elements are shown [1-12].


                        Figure 6 – Layout and polarization of levels

                                         acceptors and donors [1-12].


                    Figure 7 – Arrangements of power levels impurity

                                      in Si in the forbidden zone [1-12].  



                Figure 8 – Ladder structure of power levels

                                  impurity atoms in the transitional (forbidden) zone.

    Follows from figure 7 that implementing in the semiconductor as the bigger quantity of other impurity elements is possible, it is possible to achieve that between a conduction band and a valence band the whole "ladder number" of energy bands which is schematically shown in figure 8 is formed. These additional ladder levels of impurity atoms are necessary to facilitate transitions (jumps) of electrons in direction 1. Direction 1 shows transition of electrons from copper 2 plate to semiconductor 4 plate in figure 3. It is the so-called "return transition" arising as a result . That is there will be a volume thermo gradient effect, watch also figure 4 and formulas (1) – (5). Ladder levels (steps) will facilitate implementation of this transition in direction 1, from top to down. Whereas in lack of a volume thermo gradient effect, transitions of electrons in normal, known, classical understanding always happen in direction 2, shown in figures 5 and 8.      

    The situation can be compared to work on drag and drop of bricks by group of working builders. When they got up in a long chain and just hand over bricks nearby to the standing person. And thus it is possible to drag at the minimum power expenses bricks from first floors of the building site to upper floors. That is making the minimum work against gravitation forces. For example each builder can run separately from the first floor in upper (on a ladder) and to drag at the same time only on one brick. In this case the maximum work not useful will be spent. It will be not an effective algorithm. In our case when electrons pass in excess quantity from a copper plate into a semiconductor plate – the thermo gradient effect makes work against forces of Coulomb pushing away of negatively charged electrons from a zone of semiconductor plates 4, figure 3. Or from zone 2 in figure 4. From a conduction band electrons will pass into a valency zone (to jump) not in one step (at once in a single step), and gradually, many small jumps, down a step, watch figure 8. A set of different impurity atoms will provide existence (emergence) of these steps. Their energy levels almost evenly fill all width of a forbidden band.       

    Thus, theoretically it is possible to prove transition in direction 1 in figures 5 and 8 in terms of physics. However, in our opinion, the fact that it is necessary to provide rather uniform distribution on the volume of the semiconductor of the impurity elements  in 1 cm3 has certain difficulties. The greatest possible concentration of atoms in 1 cm3 is limited to number .

    You watch figure 2. It is necessary to be careful of process of an eutectic [18], when separate atoms and molecules of impurity substance integrate and form small volume clusters. Therefore it is not possible to receive uniform distribution on the volume of foreign impurity as a result of simple hashing (and further cooling) two liquid fusions.   

    To receive uniform on volume a respredeleniye of impurity substance in an initial crystal the most suitable is the method of an ion of a plasma sputtering in a vacuum. At an electrode cathode there have to be all impurity elements and together with them elements of the main crystal – that is Si silicon. Then at anode deposition they will intensively mix up and form rather evenly distributed (mixed) structure. And then it is possible to hope that each impurity atom will be surrounded on average about 100 (and more) with atoms of the main crystal of silicon. It is in that case possible that theoretically proved "ladder structure" for transmission of energy "on top → down" will effectively work.

    It is possible to consider other alternative option – sedimentation on a crystal from a steam gas phase [9-18].  

    The method of removal (transfer) of heat energy offered by us for creation thermo e.d.f. between large volumes of materials has advantages in comparison for example with optical polarization of charges. Which is used in solar power. The point is that a priori, the physical nature is created in such a way that quanta of solar energy of   are a little effective for removal of electrons from metals. It is about the visible light range of solar energy. Therefore the efficiency of solar panels will be low always. It is put in principle. In comparison with it transfer of heat energy will be more effective. Thermal waves essence of which of a wave of phonons. In other words, the heat transfer is a process which well is controlled. Heat energy is easily transmitted from some macro volumes to others.         

    The equations for density of heat and mass fluxes


                           ,                         (6)

allow to receive of course in a final type of the equation heat and mass transfers in a differential form [19]

                                     ,    . 

However, nevertheless (6) does not explain the physical reason of that in any way – why these heat and mass fluxes arise [20]?

    In the divided big, macroscopic volumes average kinetic and heat energy of all particles should be aligned. And only this physical principle (law) – explains emergence of flows (6).  

   At successful implementation of the thermo battery of this type on new will be used both wind and solar energy. It is known that wind electric generators become bulky. On a design, technically and schematically difficult for the reason that at different, small turn of the blade at the exit nevertheless stable level 220 V with a frequency of 50 Hz is required. Similar situation and with solar electro panels. At different intensity of a flow of beam energy at the exit it is required stable level ∓12 or ∓24 V.

   At interface (sharing) to a vind electric generator and to a solar electric unit of the new thermo electro generator offered by us work of the first (their construction and the function level) considerably becomes simpler. Namely: solar installation and the wind electric generator can work in any (simplified) mode. Even very weak, high smoothing and stabilization of their parameters at any level - will not be required. Will be enough that their power was enough for heating of some volume of liquid to temperature of 80÷90 oC. Whether it is progressive technological jump?  During the Soviet power there was a slogan: communism – it is the Soviet power plus electrification of the whole country. Let's discard the first, political part of this slogan aside. Let's consider only the second part. From which follows that if we are technologists, engineers and scientists of the whole world we will be able to provide all submultiple corners of our planet with a cheap and available type of electrical energy – then all people will be able qualitatively to raise the level of the life and welfare. Unless it not so?


  1. 1. The theoretical basis is developed and the idea to practical production and testing of the semiconductor electric generator (thermobattery) of a new type acting metal on the system basis – the semiconductor is offered. It is shown that the thermobattery will work at a basis of use of a volume (space) thermogradient effect. Sufficient level of generirumy power from volume unit of semi-conductor material allows to gain this effect.
  2. When using the semiconductor thermobattery in a complex with solar and wind electric generators it is possible to simplify significantly constructional and technological features of these installations.


  1. We invite all interested individuals, scientists – specialists, the organizations, financial structures, owners of the private capital to financial support of our this project. In case of successful implementation you will become not only our assistants, and - coauthors and collaborators of our works, patents and copyright certificates. Young researchers can expect execution of the PhD of projects within these researches. n our country scientific grants are allocated very little. Is not enough for much. There are very strong bureaucratic barriers. Therefore we ask financial aid from all persons and the organizations.
  2. If to take the immediate environment in attention, I ask to be connected to this business of young researchers from Nazarbayev University, from the KarSU of E.A. Buketov, KarSTU and all other Higher Education Institutions of RK and foreign institutes. And also I invite all colleagues from other foreign countries for collaboration. Which have interest in this research, in this work and business.                 
  3. It is necessary to buy and utanavlivat new installations for a vacuum ionic sputtering of metals, for implementation of electrobit arc process in the discharged environment.
  4. Are necessary absolutely new (at smaller dimensions) installations for cultivation of semiconductor crystals it is desirable high purity.
  5. Are necessary new measuring – computer systems, computers - for calculation and modeling of difficult physical and chemical and technological processes above-stated enough.
  6. The command structure will be need young perspective physicists, solid-state materials technologists, specialists of IT, programmers and other specialists.
  7. I well know only Russian. Therefore it is desirable that to me addressed in Russian. If it is possible. We thank all for attention.


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  15. Tsidilkovsky I. M. Electrons and holes in semiconductors. – Moscow: Science, 1972. – 640 pages.
  16. Sheckley V. Theory of electronic semiconductors. - Moscow: Publishing house Foreign literature, 1953. – The translated book from English language. – 703 pages.
  17. Lebedev A.I. Physics of semiconductor devices. – Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2008. – 488 pages.
  18. Gorelik S. S., Dashevsky M.Ya. Materials science of semiconductors and metallurgical science. – Moscow: Metallurgy, 1973. – 496 pages.
  19. Isachenko V. P., Osipova V. A., Sukomel A. S. Heat transfer. - Moscow: Energy, 1975.-488 pages.
  20. Zhakatayev T. A. Nonlinear models of hydrodynamics, warm, mass of exchange and burning in problems of diagnostics and control of technological processes in metallurgy. – The thesis for a degree of the Doctor of Engineering. – 05.16.08 – Theory of metallurgical processes. – Chemical and metallurgical institute of Zh. Abishev, Karaganda, 2010. – 304 pages.

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